Exploring Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) in Java

Photo by Dan Gold on Unsplash

Exploring Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) in Java

Java is one of the most popular programming languages that implement the OOP paradigm. Java's OOP features make it a versatile language, suitable for a wide range of applications, from desktop and mobile applications to web development.

Let's take a closer look at some of the key OOP features in Java:

Classes and Objects

In Java, everything is an object. A class is a blueprint or template for creating objects, that defines the data and behaviour of the objects. Objects are instances of classes and represent real-world entities. For example, you could have a class called "Person" that defines the properties and methods of a person object.


Java supports encapsulation, which means that the data and behaviour of an object are encapsulated or hidden from the outside world. This is achieved through access modifiers like "public," "private, and protected. By default, the properties and methods of a class are accessible only within the class, but you can also provide access to them from other classes by using access modifiers.


Inheritance allows you to create a new class that is a modified version of an existing class. The new class inherits the properties and methods of the parent class and can also add new properties and methods of its own. This helps in code reuse and reduces redundancy. In Java, you can create a subclass by using the extends keyword.


Polymorphism allows you to use a single interface or class to represent multiple types of objects. Polymorphism is achieved through method overriding and method overloading. Method overriding allows a subclass to provide its implementation of a method that is already defined in its parent class. Method overloading allows a class to have multiple methods with the same name but different parameters.


Abstraction allows you to focus on the essential features of an object and ignore the non-essential details. In Java, you can achieve abstraction by using abstract classes and interfaces. An abstract class is a class that cannot be instantiated but can be used as a base class for other classes. An interface is a collection of abstract methods that define the behavior of a class, without specifying how the behaviour is implemented.

Polymorphic Reference Variables

In Java, you can use a reference variable of a superclass to refer to an object of a subclass. This is known as a polymorphic reference variable. This allows you to write code that can work with multiple objects of different classes, without knowing the specific class of each object.


Java's OOP features make it a versatile and powerful language. By using classes and objects, encapsulation, inheritance, polymorphism, and abstraction, you can create code that is easier to understand, modify, and reuse. Java's OOP features make it a popular choice for building large-scale software systems that are scalable, maintainable, and extensible.

Did you find this article valuable?

Support Jaydeep Ravat by becoming a sponsor. Any amount is appreciated!